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Even though everyone develops at slightly different paces Almost everyone hits the same general developmental milestones and learns the same sets of skills at about the same time more or less These are things like language and communication socializing cognitive skills like problem-solving and physical milestones like walking crawling and fine motor skills all of which progresses the brain develops If one of these doesn’t develop as scheduled depending on the severity it may be described as a type of neurodevelopmental disorder neuro referring to the brain Especially when certain skills related to socializing and communicating don’t proceed as normally it can result in isolation Which is where the name autism originated since Auto means self? So autism refers to a condition where somebody might be removed from social interaction in communication leaving them alone or isolated Before 2013 the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for mental disorders the fourth edition or the DSM 4 Described autism as one of several pervasive developmental disorders, which also includes Asperger’s syndrome childhood disintegrative disorder and those not otherwise specified or pdd-nos Asperger’s syndrome was used for children that appeared to have characteristics of autism like difficulties with social interactions or nonverbal communication But don’t generally have significant delays in language or cognitive development and therefore Asperger’s syndrome was sometimes referred to as a high-functioning form of autism Childhood disintegrative disorder was used to describe late onset of developmental delays so these children developed normally for their age But then they seem to lose the acquired social and communication skills sometime between age 2 and 10 Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified is essentially a catch-all category in which patients meet some, but not all features of autism Asperger’s syndrome or childhood disintegrative disorder Researchers found however that separate diagnosis of these pervasive develop disorders weren’t consistent across different clinics since they tend to have very similar signs and symptoms as of 2013 the dsm-5 a new revised edition Removed these terms and replace them with autism spectrum disorder or ASD which Encompasses all the previous pervasive developmental disorders, but uses a scale or a spectrum that differentiates based on the severity of two major areas social communication and interaction deficits and restrictive or repetitive behavior interests and activities For the social and communication area there are four subcategories that clinicians look for deficits the first is social reciprocity Which refers to how children respond or reciprocate in social interactions? so like how the behavior of one person influences the other and vice versa an example impairment in this area might be referring to being alone and not taking a role in social games a Second area of potential deficit is joint attention Which is the state of wanting to share an interest with someone else so it’s like hey check out this awesome thing I found So an example impairment in this area might be a child not sharing their interests or amusement in an object with their parent next there’s nonverbal communication, which refers to difficulties either using nonverbal communication themselves or interpreting nonverbal cues from someone else so maybe the child won’t put their arms out when they want to be picked up or Maybe they won’t be able to tell when a parent’s upset even if the parents frowning and crossing their arms The last subcategory of communication deficits is in social relationships So children have trouble developing and maintaining relationships So maybe the child has a hard time making friends or they’re able to make friends, but the reliever tends to drive the friends away The other major area is called restrictive and repetitive Behaviors, and this category is pretty broad and can include a whole bunch of behaviors some being more well-known or characterized than others Like lining up toys in a ritualistic sort of way or flapping ones hands or imitating words or phrases the child might be fixed on certain routines like taking the same route every day to school or they might have restricted patterns of interest like having a very specific and in-depth knowledge of the Titanic or vacuum cleaners Children with autism spectrum disorder might exhibit one or more of these deficits and vary in how severe the deficit is with that in mind It’s important to remember that each child with autism spectrum disorder is going to have a different spectrum of symptoms and deficits Typically clinicians will try to observe these behaviors in the child looking for these possible deficits since these behaviors are often more well known by the child’s takers in the our by the clinicians like their parents or their teachers a Meaningful diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder relies heavily on listening to what others are observing at home or in school They might be given severity scores in each area which can help determine how much support the child’s going to need For example a severity level one would indicate the child needs some support for social communication they might speak in full sentences and engage in communication But normal back-and-forth conversation with others just doesn’t seem to work For repetitive and restrictive behaviors. They might have difficulty switching between activities On the other side of the spectrum a level 3 severity means the child needs very substantial support and on the social communication side They might display very few words of intelligible speech and rarely initiate an interaction with others For repetitive behaviors. They might be extremely resistant to change and their behaviors seriously interfere with their daily life It’s thought that using this scale of symptoms as opposed to differentiating between Pervasive developmental disorders will help give a more accurate and medically useful way to diagnose individuals For example those with what was previously described as Asperger’s syndrome would likely fall closer to severity level 1 than severity level 3 Generally speaking autism spectrum disorders thought to have a genetic cause which ultimately affects brain development specifically areas that affects social and communication behaviors Which genes are a combination of genes that are affected in an autism spectrum disorder though is still very much a mystery in? Addition there are a bunch of environmental triggers that have to be explored But at the moment there are no clear risk factors that have been identified with that said there is also no cure for autism spectrum disorder and Treatment or management has to be specifically and carefully tailored to each child and this includes things like specialized education Programs and behavior therapy that all seek to maximize quality of life and functional independence Alright as a quick recap Autism is a developmental disorder where an individual has difficulty with social interactions in community patien often leaving them socially isolated The disorder is along a spectrum of communication and interaction deficits as well as restrictive or repetitive behavior interests in activities a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder requires significant input from caretakers and management of the disease is highly individualized Thanks for watching If you’re interested in a deeper dive on this topic take a look at as Moses org where we have Flashcards questions and other awesome tools to help you learn medicine Otherwise you can always support us by donating on patreon subscribing to our channel or following us on social media You

100 thoughts on “Autism – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

  1. Children become adults. Children not diagnosed become undiagnosed adults with autism and many need diagnosis to gain access to proper services. Autism does not end at 18. Aside from omitting adults, excellent video.

  2. I have mild Autism or Asperger and ADHD and I take Ritalin and risperidone and also have Non-Verbal Learning Disability

  3. Really interesting video 👍
    It would be nice if this video wouldn't focus so much on children with autism because children with autism grow up to teens and adults with autism .

  4. It's a shame that in the internet-world, the word Autism has replaced "Retarted" in the sense of being used as a deliberate insult

  5. Causes are multidimensional as there are factors that contribute to NDDs.
    Not limited to (chronic) exposure to heavy metals like mercury, trauma and genetic

  6. Your videos are awesome…
    I think i'm Schizoid (basically sure of this), a psychologist believes too but don't want to affirm a diagnosis yet.
    Another psychologist said she thinks i'm autistic, but being a psychology enthusiast myself and reading the symptoms i believe i'm not autistic… Signs that i noted to confirm this to me and to comment to the specialists that attend me:
    * I have aversion to socializing and not difficult (its not hard, its just aversion);
    * I have few activities that is joyful for me, yet i'm not restrictive or repetitive;
    * I can interpret easily a non-verbal communication;
    * Even if i have specific knowledge in certain subjects, its very objective normally, i wouldn't "waste" time learning about vacuum cleaners or over information of a single subject (example, i would study about Titanic, but I don't care at all about the specific size or how many life boats it had, i just know it lacked life boats, because that is objective).

  7. while most of the information in this is true, a lot of it is quite incorrect, or phrased in a way that implies things that aren't ethical. notably, in the section on traits about joint attention, an autistic person is more likely to share their interests with others, and only their interests, and may not talk much about anything else. also, the causes and treatment section is really quite ableist. causes are irrelevant in this day and age because looking for a cause is a veil for finding a cure, and most autistic people don't want to be cured (not that it's possible anyway). if they want to lower the rates of something with no cure, that means they want prenatal screenings, which is literally eugenics. the only effective and ethical 'treatment' for autism is to educate others around the person on what accommodations are necessary and how to interact with them. applied behavioural analysis 'therapy' is abusive, and involves hours of having their comfort items taken away until they comply with the instructor doing something they are uncomfortable doing, such as not stimming (the phrase 'quiet hands' still makes me feel sick) or making eye contact, which is painful. also, what's with the emphasis on children? we don't all die as kids, and autism is for life, so autistic adults should be included in conversations involving it. oh, and using the terms 'severity' and 'high/low functioning' are used to invalidate and silence autistic people ("you can't talk about this topic bc ur too high functioning, but i can bc my uncle's ex wife's kid's friend's brother has autism" or "but the severe ones make my life so hard so they can't have any thoughts worth anything"). sources: i'm autistic, and have experienced most of this first-hand. also 3 years actively involved in the autism self-advocacy community

  8. How would an adult be diagnosed if they've observed and learned over years, what reactions are "expected" of them? They may carry this over into the psych session or test, how is social skill differentiated from learned behavior to avoid criticism?

  9. Mental health disorders can be hard to coop and can become a nightmare for one's day to day life. But misdiagnosis and stigma around mental illnesses is probably the most significant cause of depression.
    Social connections were an important part of human survival for almost 40.000 years for our species. Nature is a cruel and challenging place, for a single person. However, now the majority of the world live in a civilisation with human rights, law enforcement, supermarkets and all the facilities to make our life easy. So now social connections have no importance for survival. Thus, socialisation is a choice of entertainment. If someone prefers to spend free time in isolation from society because it has more injoible things to do, it is a choice, not a disorder.

  10. i’ve been told by my therapist that i might be autistic. i’m a girl and i’ve learned that it often goes under diagnosed in girls. i have another evaluation with my doctor for antidepressants so i think i’ll have my therapist write a note to bring up with my doctor.

  11. Thanks to the medical monopolies we now have this plaque upon us. All the children who went thru 72 rounds of mercury laden vaccinations are retarded now in one form or another…. Welcome to the future lemmings. It was a very bad idea for American's to start trusting the "experts" like they did over the last 50 years.

  12. Having a mercury injured autistic child will sure keep a parents' mind off what the thieving pirates running the empire are doing.

  13. What about autism in adults❓I’m 32 I still haven’t been diagnosed & I think I might have high functioning autism according 2 the DSM5 or Aspergers syndrome according 2 the DSM4

  14. I've been autistic this whole time and never knew what to call it I wonder if adults can be diagnosed with this disorder

  15. Thank you for this video, I have a nephew who seems to have pretty much a variety of symptoms that fall on AED I wish my brother and sister in law could understand than denying an existing problem only affects my nephew more than benefits him. I have tell them in many ways to seek for help but they don't want to accept it.

  16. My mom knew I isolated myself in kindergarten and I have never in my life had any close friends

    No diagnosis because vagina

  17. At first I wondered why the subscriber count didn't match the production quality, but after a couple minutes I realized it's the quality of information that's holding people. Kudos.

  18. Informative about Autism, but not much information for adults on the spectrum.

    Help and support more less vanishes if your an adult with Autism. It did for me anyway 😣😔
    Everyday is a struggle. No job, no friends or girlfriend. Panic attacks, OCD, Crohn's Disease and depression.

    ☹️☹️

  19. I consulted with my doctor she says it's genetic but none of my parents have autism but a family member in my dad's family does is that possible for a person related to the mother or father to share the same disorders as the child that the parents give birth to

  20. You are born with it and it means your brain is wired differently
    I have autism and i was sertantly not cut of from less social communication and languge events
    You are way of

  21. When I was six this kid jumped on me and hit me and I punched him back and quit being his friend but and I recently just found out he has autism

  22. This is another Excellent Video on Autism. It's complete and at the same time easy to understand. As to some of the comments, Yes, there are adults with 'Autism," which go about their daily routines as if they didn't. These autistic adults have overcome their life challenges and proceed on with their life intact. Let's all continue to assist those in the best way we know how by exploring every avenue possible that may provide those with autism some assistance. FR

  23. I’m watching this because my crush has Autism, but a very moderate kind I thought he was lying when he told me that he has autism because people joke about autism in our class though he showed me his doctors note

    Yet he is not in special ed
    Which I don’t know why he isn’t

    He told me that his autism is very moderate, not having the behavior but mindset

  24. It's funny you mentioned vacuum cleaners, I have a autistic nephew with a special interest and knowledge of vacuum cleaners. Before that it was toilet mechanisms. He is very young.

  25. I have asd and 21. No one ever wants to talk to me and I find it hard to talk to strangers. I don't like looking people in the eyes because it scares me alot

  26. Why does everything point towards me….. all symptoms were like me and sytoms for adhd were exactly like me

  27. The reason why people or
    Social disconnected from other s
    Is not to blame on people with
    Autism u need to blame

    The so call normal there so
    Social skilled but cannot socialist
    With someone who is difficult and look different

    Just keep trying to connect with them

    But when a autistic person
    Is attacked and knows where this
    Is coming from then don't try
    It

  28. None on the planet is normal
    Or can socialist normal

    The fake city and fake relationships people our in

  29. I’m really annoyed that some people see it as a ‘disease’ and that vaccines cause it. No, vaccines do not cause it lol

  30. I am actually dealing with this situation,for those who hate “Abnormal People”, I want to say:
    You cannot choose to be normal but you can choose to be kind or evil.

  31. And o am surrounded by people
    So I never can be lonely

    U know what is lonely ness
    Bein on a land without other humans

    😒

  32. People don't make any sense
    At all I still communicate with
    People when I working in
    A shop when customers
    trying to ask u something

    Or some one walk up on u
    I still talk to them and making eye contact 😂😂😂

  33. Work place in the city is toxic for people of autism I don't care if u or smarter then E.T.

    The jobs or not trained to work with someone who has autism or
    High functional autism is just the same to me i good with everything there gave me

    And every time there got more narcissist injury from it and this people or also autistic 😂😂😂
    We all are human so only this type of human s seeking for revange all the time

  34. I dealing the hole time with disfunctional narcissist autistic people who or so stupid there need to work together to take
    To take higher one down didn't it work for me nope 😒

  35. And I am free to leave the work place

    People should know u where never
    Been trapped
    Thats why u not a victim

    Real crimenals would kill
    U all time a go

    While cyber technology people
    Love to cyber Stalk u and is your daily routine of life so what u don't
    Like to change

    can the world change by letting go of the money or power no

    Or slave because working under a other manger is also a boss

    And the top bossis the money boss

  36. I do not remember having all these social behavioral problems back in the 50’s, 60’s and/or 70’s. I guess we may have had them but did not know what go call it.

  37. Thank you so much. That was really informative. My partner and I have been concerned about our 4YO son Max's development. We recently spoke to a paediatrician who based off the detailed information provided by his pre-school teacher that he is likely on the spectrum. I have been enquiring with various psychologist to try and determine what kind of test is required. There seems to be a bit of conflicting information, with some clinics providing different services, a significant variation in costs, and others not even treating children under 6. Fortunately, in Australia we have the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) which at the suggestionn of Max's teacher we apply through the Early Childhood Early Intervention (ECEI) program. We started the process in November 2018 not long after his teachers initially raised their concerns which validated alot of ours. We only heard from his assigned ECEI coordinator in July. I just sent the request / supporing evidence on Monday (~10 months after our initial enquiry) and fingers crossed will get confirmation about soem funding.

  38. I have autism and I seem to relate to 2.
    “Restricted or Repetitive behaviour/interests/activities”.

    As a child, I played with My Little Pony figurines and my Mum told me stories about how I would put them in a certain order and if I were to leave the room and she’d rearrange them-? I’d apparently put it back in the same order. I remember my thought process, each pony had certain friend groups and different places in my made up social hierarchy. Pinky Pie was the mayor and would host get together and such. I always put them in rows as if they were sitting at a theatre as Pinky Pie stands “on stage”. Hence, they were all in specific positions.

    Around the age of 12, I found this new way of expressing my excitement. I would flap my hands (my wrists going all floppy) and something about it makes happy. The sensation with the air on my hand and the movement in general, it feels comforting.

    To this day, I’m fixed on certain routines. My older sibling would often want to catch a different bus because it was “quicker” and I never understood why she’d want that. I loved catching the bus we were already catching. I viewed the bus as another toy one would have, I had an emotional attachment and it had a set route and everything. If I were to catch a different bus, I truly believed that I may hurt its feelings and I wouldn’t feel happy or at ease on another bus. It’d be like betrayal in my head.

    I definitely have restrictive thinking, haha. I have a habit of finding an interest I like and I become obsessed. I love anime so I’ve been engrossed in it for the past three years and my family doesn’t seem to get why I haven’t “moved on” or “found something else”. It’s like a hyper-fixation. I love it so of course I want to be educated on it so when I meet someone who has the same interests, I’m highly educated on the topic. I also like to know about the interest due to being able to think about it at any given time. I have started liking whale sharks and ohmygod, they’re beautiful creatures. I want to swim with one someday. 🙂

    As a toddler, I struggled with speech. So I had to see a speech therapist to help me pronounce sounds.

    I’m medicated due to also having ADHD, but I find myself comfortable with how I act and think. Being autistic I feel has largely shaped me as a person. With people online making “autism” an insult, I find it entertaining. For people to think being autistic is an insult? It’s amusing. It has brought me nothing but joy. It’s made me who I am. And so what if I am particular about many things-? It doesn’t mean it’s a bad thing. To everyone out there struggling with autism or with someone who has it, just know that you’re not alone and that it’s okay to be different. You’re one of a kind. Feel special to have a different thought process to everyone else. 🙂

  39. Even though I have Autism, this helped me learn a little bit more about what I have. It's pretty difficult to me but I've gotten through it so far. Now I'mma Sophomore in highschool!! 😀

  40. I mean my mate has it kind of aspergers syndrome. It not oevrally noticeable initially.
    But one major thing he had issue with socialisation, always be by himself , sometimes if I'm being sarcastic which I'm like ah. Or if he likes somethings ist like drug to him he needs to know more about it.
    Admittedly difference, my mate is in his 20s not a young child.

  41. PDD can also be high functioning not just Asbergers. Also the environmental is more conclusive, when it comes to pollution. There is a direct link it is just which pollutants cause more risk than others Scientists are trying to figure out

  42. why is a way of transporting water down the concentration gradient through protein channels and requires no atp explaining my disorder?

  43. As a person with Autism, I am offended that you referred to the disability as a "disease" at the end of the video, apart from that, it's a decent video to explain ASD.

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