Matinum

Taking Charge of Your Health


– [Voiceover] Let’s say we
have this gentleman right here, and I’ve drawn out his genitalia. This is the penis, the
testicle, the prostate, the bladder, and the
rectum above the anus, and we suspect that they
might have chlamydia. They may have contracted chlamydia. How would we go through and diagnose that? Well, there are a couple
of tests that we could use right off the bat to aid in our diagnosis, and in order to do any of these, we need to get a sample. And so, if this gentleman
here is infected, and we’re suspecting chlamydia, there may be some chlamydia
reproducing and growing up his urinary tract. And so, what we need is a swab sample. So we would swab right here from the tip. So imagine there’s a little bit of a sample here we’ve collected, and we can use a couple of tests to figure out if chlamydia is there. The first test we can use would help us look for chlamydia DNA. So I’m going to draw a
strand of DNA right here, and as you might imagine,
there’s going to be a little bit of that
present on this cotton swab that we’ve collected here. And we can’t really see
if there’s any chlamydia, if we’ve only got this small amount of DNA or this nucleic acid. And so, what we want to do is multiply the number of nucleic
acid samples that we have from this cotton swab,
and once we do that, we have enough genetic
material or nucleic acid that we can actually detect with probes. And this process of
multiplying or amplifying the amount of nucleic acids
we have from the chlamydia is done using a polymerase chain reaction. Maybe you’ve heard of PCR before. And to use this test to diagnose chlamydia is called a nucleic acid, nucleic acid amplification test, a nucleic acid amplification test, or it’s also referred to as an NAAT. Now this test is great
because not only is it fast, but it’s also more sensitive. So more sensitive, I’ll just
write SN here, more sensitive and more specific, so I’ll
write SP, more specific than other tests, which
means we’re less likely to have false-negatives
if it’s very sensitive, and we’re less likely
to have false-positive if it’s very specific. So it makes sense that this test is the most common one that we use to diagnose chlamydia. Another test that can be used is a traditional Gram stain, and we’ve talked about this before, but the steps of a traditional Gram stain just involve taking the swab that we got a sample from over here, and then we smear it on
this microscopic slide, and then we add a series of several drops. So that would be one of the drops, and then over time we would watch it and add this drop as well, and this would help us visualize if the chlamydia bacteria
are actually present here. But the problem is that chlamydia, because it’s an intracellular organism, it likes to stay within
cells, it’s hard to see with a traditional Gram stain. So this test isn’t often used anymore. Another test that can be
done is to take the sample from our swab and put
it on this petri dish. So I’ll draw this sample being
swabbed on this petri dish, and we let it sit and
grow for about five days. So five days. And after five days, we would
see that our petri dish here would start to grow some
colonies of the chlamydia. So I’ll draw a couple of
these colonies all over here. And that’s how we could figure out that this bug is growing in our patient. But as you notice, this
test takes too long. It takes too long for us to
get a conclusive diagnosis, which is why we’ve elected to use faster techniques nowadays. So after we’ve made our diagnosis, how do we treat chlamydia? Well, the mainstay of
treatment will be antibiotics. Antibiotics. And to skip back a
little, we can use this, and I forgot to label it here, we can use this culture
test or this culture to help us figure out what antibiotics would work best against chlamydia. And we do that by smearing one antibiotic, say down here, and then a
separate or a second antibiotic, number two, up there. So when we look at our
culture five days later, we’ll see that where antibiotic two was, there are some chlamydia
colonies that are growing out. So it doesn’t look like that
antibiotic works very well to kill off the chlamydia. Instead, antibiotic number
one, which we put over here, has a gap of colonies. There are no colonies growing
around where we smeared it. So that’s how we can figure
out antibiotic sensitivity for the bacteria and do targeted therapy. So I’ll just write up here,
we can target sensitivity. And then, finally, maybe
we can catch a person before they get chlamydia. And what could we do to help people prevent having the disease
in the first place? So, steps for prevention. And with any infectious
disease, the way to do that is to stop transmission. So we need to stop the
spreading of chlamydia from one infected person to another. And remember, there are several ways that we can transmit chlamydia. Mainly through sex, and that can involve vaginal, anal, and oral sex. For all three of these, we
can prevent transmission by using condoms. So that way we can decrease the amount of direct contact between an
infected and an uninfected person. Another thing we can use
specifically for oral sex are dental dams, with the same concept that we’re decreasing direct contact. And finally, the last way we
can transmit chlamydia is from an infected mother to her
newborn child during childbirth, and the way we prevent this
is just by treating mom, which is why all pregnant
women in the United States are screened for chlamydia and gonorrhea on one of their first doctor’s visits, and the main reason behind this is because 70% of infected women have no symptoms, which is kind of scary. It means that if a woman is pregnant and then delivers that child, it’s very likely they can
pass the infectious disease on to the baby without
even knowing they had it, which is why it’s really
important to be checked and treated early on.

6 thoughts on “Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of chlamydia | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

  1. What if you’re both infected and are both under treatment ? And still are having sex?

    My boyfriend ended up removing the condom without me knowing.

    While both of us are about 10 days post the treatment (got treated at different times)

    He so stupidity still went in.
    How high is the likelihood of out treatment still able to work ? (Only had sex once post the treatment)

  2. I am a medical laboratory science student from Ghana. I kinda have a problem with how you illustrated how the antibiotic sensitivity test was done.

  3. Chlamydia dont grow in artificial culture medium. It can be either inoculated in yolk sac or can be growm in maccoy cell line

  4. Whata about kissing, lets say the woman perfom oral sex on a guy with chlamydia and she get it then she kisses another guy, does this guy gets it from the kiss

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