Taking Charge of Your Health

– So we’ve talked quite a
bit about herpes already. The next step would be to understand how do we diagnose herpes? Well commonly what physicians will do is ask the patient about
their medical history, recent sexual practices, and other things that may
suggest a mode of transmission or some way the patient could
have already been infected with herpes. So combined with this history, and the symptoms that
they may be exhibiting such as the cold sore
either on their lips, that’s called herpes labialis or if it’s on their genitals that’s herpes genitalis. That’s usually enough
to make the diagnosis. And that’s actually what
physicians most commonly will do. Beyond that there are a couple
of tests that can be used to make the diagnosis. One test that used to be
more commonly employed is called the Tzank smear. The Tzank smear, which is named after a
famous French dermatologist. So let me draw the French flag here. Let’s put in a little
red, white, and blue. So this test was first described
by a French dermatologist and what they would do
is take a swab sample of a cold sore or an ulcer. So here’s our sample right there and that sample would be applied
onto this slide right here. So let’s smear the sample
onto the slide right over here and then what you’ll see
after adding a stain. This could be either a Giemsa stain or a Wright stain, so don’t worry about those names, but there’s a specific
dye that’s added to this, so I’ll just write up here
a dye of some sort is added and what you should see
if this patient has herpes are these giant cells. These are supposed to be epithelial cells from the swab of the lip
or from the genitals, so that’s one giant cell. So I’ll write down here we
see a couple of giant cells. And there are a few other here. But what’s interesting about these cells is that they don’t have just one nucleus. There are several of them. So I can count one-ish right there. Maybe here’s another one right there. And then there’s another one right there. So this cell is multi-nucleated. So we say that we have multi-nucleated and this is suggestive
of a diagnosis of herpes, but the problem is this Tzanck smear is suggestive of a couple
other things as well, in addition to being positive for HSV1 and HSV2, this can also be found
with cytomegalovirus or even with varicella or herpes zoster which is another type of virus altogether which is why this test
isn’t as commonly done because usually a history and symptoms can be suggestive of herpes by itself. But even beyond that, another test that used to be done is what’s referred to
as a cytopathic culture. So cytopathic culture. So I think you’ve heard
the term culture before. I’ll describe it a little
more in detail below here. But the reason why it’s called cytopathic is that what we try to do in this test is to take cells or cytes and kill them. So that’s why it’s a cytopathic culture. Pathic you might recognize from the term pathology which is the study of disease. So we take cells and
we give them a disease. So specifically we have
this culture right here and we start off with a couple of cells so these are cells that aren’t
necessarily from the patient but can be from a stalk
cell line in a laboratory and to this we add a sample
of our patient’s blood. So I’ll draw the
patient’s blood right here and I’ll label it. And so if we’re suspecting
that this patient has been infected with herpes I’ll draw this triangle or symbol for the herpes simplex virus. What we should see over here is our culture of cells dying off which means that there’s
something in the patient’s blood that’ taking over the cells and not allowing them to grow. And so that’s a suggestive
diagnosis for herpes. But again, this is also
something you’ll see with a variety of other viruses as well. Alright so let’s say
we’ve made our diagnosis. The next step would be treatment. Well for viruses there’s a
specific class of antibiotics referred to as antivirals
that we use on them. But as you remember from
the timeline of symptoms that you’ll see with herpes, they usually go away in about 10 days, so we don’t often give antivirals. These are specifically given to patients that are at high risk for
complications of herpes and these folks tend
to be immunosuppressed. So we only give antivirals to those that are immunosuppressed. And there are some
exceptions to this rule, but this is the general trend and immunosuppressed is
sort of an umbrella term for a lot of things. Women that are pregnant are relatively immunosuppressed. So we’ll treat them with antivirals if they’re positive for herpes sometimes. So in addition to treatment what can we do to prevent the herpes virus from
happening in the first place. So prevention, and the mainstay of prevention for all sexually transmitted infections is to block transmission. So going down our list of modes for transmission of herpes we see sex as one of
the common ways to do it and so one of the things
that we can do during sex is to use a condom. That will help limit direct contact and then additionally for oral sex use of dental dams can also decrease direct contact as well. During childbirth there are two ways that we can limit spread of herpes from an infected mother to a child. One would be to just
treat mom with antivirals. And the other is if a pregnant woman has active sores in their genitals, one strategy would be to
deliver the baby by C-section because removing the baby
through abdominal surgery rather than through a vaginal delivery will decrease their
contact with the open sores and thereby block direct contact to decrease their risk of
developing neonatal herpes. These last two modes of transmission pertain mostly to healthcare workers in which case use of gloves is a very prudent way to make sure you don’t touch an open sore when examining a patient. And another issue that healthcare workers come in contact with is sometimes getting needle stuck when drawing labs from a patient and so safe needle disposal practices will help decrease their
risk of a needle stick injury and thereby limit their risk of developing herpetic whitlow as well.

18 thoughts on “Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of herpes | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

  1. IF getting Herpes cure was that easy then why do people still suffer from herpes?I was diagnosed of herpes and i was also told it has no cure,I have been leaving with it since then, but i kept praying and doing everything possible to get cured, so i never stop doing research about finding a cure,as I was searching on google I came across a testimonies about people getting cured through herbal medication and i have always believe in herbs and its medical properties, after doing so many research about it i found Dr. Azazi and I discovered he was a professional in herbal medication and he has also helped many people,I contacted him through his mail: [email protected] his we talked on phone and i confirmed he was genuine,I did all what he told me to do, i received the medicine,use it as he prescribed,and glory be to God almighty i am completely cured, i went back to my doctor to confirm it and everything was really fine.Do not be deceived that there is no herpes cure…You can as well contact him if you have this kind of diseases on his email…[email protected] or [email protected] phone him +2347087771434 or what's app this Dr is also good in curing you from any kind of like Hepatitis B,, Hiv/Aids,, Cancer,, Hpv,,low sperm count,,Fibroid and many more… good luck

  2. Good day to all viewer online am so happy sharing this great testimony on how i was checking for solution in the internet then miraculously i came Across Dr.Oba the powerful herbalist that Cure Numerous individuals Herpes Simplex Virus,so I contacted him base on the testimonies I?m seeing about him on the internet, I was cured too by him, kindly contact him actoday through his email he can help you email ; [email protected] OR WHATSAPP +2348088337602 and so he can cure types of diseases like,HEPATITIS B,DIABETICS,CANCER,HPV,LOW SPERM CAM HIV/STDS FIBROSIS LOST OF WEIGHT .. all thank to you Dr Oba for your kindly help in my life


    I am a living testimony

    Elizabeth Robbin is my name, Dr. Ahmed cured my herpes virus, you can reach him on ([email protected]) or you can call or Whatsapp him on +2348064460510. for more information.

  4. I never thought i will ever have a good health again,i have been having herpes 1 and 2 for the pass four years,not until one day i go on a research on the Internet where i saw someone given testimony on how Dr Teshe help her  cure her herpes with his local herbal medicine,so i said to my self it also the same problem am having so i have to also contact the herbal doctor Dr Teshe on his email which the lady recommended to anyone who might also need the herbal cure help. Wholeheartedly am so grateful to this man as he have restored my health and make me a happy woman again. Anyone out there who might be facing same  problem should kindly contact Dr Teshe as is know he will help you with your problem as well on his email [email protected] You can also call or whatsApp him through his mobile number +2348154724883

  5. I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES patient in the world i never believed that there could be any complete cure for HERPES or any cure for HERPES,i saw people’s testimony on blog sites of how DR Elvis prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to live without the HERPES DRUGS the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain,delay in treatment leads to death. Here is his email [email protected] his WHATSAPP number is +2348142572844.

  6. God bless Dr. Hendrix for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HERPES since 2014 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the HERPES out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for HERPES i saw a comment about Dr. okoduwa,how he cured HERPES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 14 days later i was cured from HERPES,thank you [email protected] or text +1 339-201-9132

  7. There are traditional herbal remedies that have been yet to be globally known to have destroyed Herpes and HIV AIDs on numerous accounts in West Africa. These traditional herbs have been tested with positive results on victims of HIV AIDs and Herpes. These traditional remedies have been tested to have worked effectively by a number of patients originally from Africa. I have just received these African herbs for my sick sister who had suffered from genital herpes, but is now free from the virus through the administration of the founder behind this natural remedy – Dr. Harry Obiego. I have used so many anti-herpes treatment to fight my sister's ailment, but none has proved to be far effective than that of this African doctor. With no possibility of side effects, his herbal medication gradually succumbs the virus in a short period that reoccurrence of symptoms are always impossible. This cure is probably going to change the health pharmaceuticals via production of more stronger vaccines in fighting Herpes and HIV AIDs, as people and still many to come are being cured of these viruses. Anyone who may happen to be going through the difficulties of an HIV AIDs or Herpes victim should be encouraged as not to give up and try this newly herbal traditional herbs which have only proven worthy by healing my sister's HSV-2. I believe this latest approach of a reliable remedy by this African doctor towards HIV AIDs and Herpes is definitely with time going to cause great impact in the health system today. This information is coming as a live testimony and divine liberation from Herpes and HIV AIDs to anyone it may concern facing either of these ordeals. You too can also be free as this good news of a reliable cure reached my home. All joys of attaining a normal life from these viruses can be achieved at the trial of this African traditional medicines. For more information regarding this cure, you can contact the traditional healer directly via his email: [email protected], or equally reach him via his WhatsApp number: +2349016161406.

  8. never believe that I will be Herpes Negative again,DR. IREKO has given me reasons to be happy, i was Herpes positive for 2years and all the means i tried for treatment was not helpful to me, but when i came on the Internet i saw great testimony about DR. IREKO on how he was able to cure someone from Herpes, this person said great things about this man, and advice we contact him for any Disease problem that DR. IREKO can be of help, well i decided to give him a try, he requested for my information which i sent to him, and he days,and after which i should go back to the hospital for check up, well after taking all the treatment sent to me by DR. IREKO i went back to the Hospital for check up, and now i have been confirmed Herpes Negative, friends you can reach DR. IREKO on any treatment for any Disease he is the one only i can show you all up just contact him on {drIREKO [email protected]} OR Whatsapp +2347087427797

  9. I am becky by name am here to give my testimony about Dr abumere who

    helped m.. i want to inform

    the public how i was cured


    VIRUS) by Dr abumere, i visited

    different hospital but they

    gave me list of drugs like

    Famvir, Zovirax, and Valtrex

    which is very expensive to

    treat the symptoms and

    never cured me. I was

    browsing through the

    Internet searching for

    remedy on HERPES and i

    saw comment of people

    talking about how Dr abumere

    cured them. when i

    contacted him he gave me

    hope and send a Herbal

    medicine to me that i took

    for just 2 weeks and it

    seriously worked for me, my

    HERPES result came out

    negative. I am so happy as i

    am sharing this testimony.

    My advice to you all who

    thinks that their is no cure

    for herpes that is Not true

    just contact him and get cure

    from Dr abumere healing spell

    cure of all kinds of sickness

    you may have. Remember

    delay in treatment leads to

    death.. email him at

    [email protected] or call him at +2349021975055

  10. Wow, You shared very good information. My uncle had suffered from this problem. He was total upset during this. He went to many Hospitals But the result was not good. Then, Someone told him about planet Ayurveda. He went to Planet Ayurveda & got his treatment started. Now he is fine. If you have this type of problem or any other type of health problem. you should go to Planet Ayurveda.

  11. The only solution right now is herbal remedy. I had genital herpes for a long time and tried different formulas to cure but they only reduced the symptoms and I never got cured until i came across DR JUDE HERBAL HOME whom I ordered his medicine and it completely eradicated the virus. I've had different tests to know if this virus is hiding in my blood but they are all totally negative, let's not ignore herbs because it has thought me that nature is life. If you want to get to Dr Jude you can contact him through his email [email protected] and you will be forever thankful you did

  12. Hi there, it's not that difficult to understand how come this works. This online video is great for the maintenance phase, but if you want to make the cold sores go away inside days, try googlin Jeno Thorsdak's website.

  13. just got diagnosed with HSV1, and reading this actually made me feel like crawling and crying like a baby. The outbreak I have right now is genital and in my throat and mouth, I talked to the doctor who did the blood test on me and said over time that it would eventually get much better. She said that what I’m having is a massive outbreak and is unusual, but that it may be due to the fact that I stressed myself out over it so much. She also told me even though I have it in the genital area that It doesn't mean that I needed “private to private” contact to acquire it. But this did make me feel a whole lot better about the whole situation. For anyone else to have HSV1 after all this stress and pains am passing and the doctor saying all such of crap i was not convince by his Theory so i decided to go on the internet and saw this comments by Rose who testify about how she get cured by root and herbs by Dr Ologunebi , when i first bump into it i didn't believe the comments at first so i decided to confront her on Facebook and really know what and how did it work because my doctor told me there is no cure for herpes, so i really contacted DR Ologunebi, he responded in A minute the only thing he ever ask for was just the items of which he will use to prepare for the herbs, after all this he send the herbs through courier Services, within a week i was cure just like that without no struggle or stress, if you are out there in need of cure contact him with his email address: [email protected]

    OR reach him on

    Whatsapp :+2348129675448.

  14. REAL CURE ON HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS AND HIV. some times we just need to give a try to herbal Medicine to see for our self. I am very happy today that i do not listen to what people say if not i would have been a dead man by now. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2014, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution,  so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that my body can be okay. One day I was in the office thinking where I can go to get solution. so a lady walked to me telling me why am I so sad and i open up all to her telling her my problem, she told me that she can help me out, she introduce me to a doctor who uses herbal medication to cure HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS, HIV, HPV  and many more disease and she gave me his email, so i mail him. He told me all the things I need to do and send me the herbal medicine through courier delivering service and also give me instructions to take, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after 3 weeks the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS that was in my body got vanished and blister dried off . I went to the hospital for a test and it was negative. this man is real and he is the solution to herpes virus. so if you are also heart broken and also need a help, you can also email him [email protected] (call or whatsapp +2349036036397  according to this great DR he can also cure HIV, ALS,CANCER, COLD SORE, HPV, HEPATITIS OF ALL KIND  AND DIABETES


    i am millian josh, from united state. i saw several comments on blog sites and Facebook page on how Dr OOSA cure people from herpes. after reading their article, i decided to ordered for Dr oosa medicine product which i received within 5 working days. i used the medicine for few days and my outbreak stop totally, and my herpes genital was gone completely. i went to hospital for test and the doctor confirmed i am herpes negative. i am sharing this story for herpes patient to know there is cure for herpes. here is DR OOSA email [email protected] or whatsapp +359878394269 his product is guarantee and its does not have any side effect

  16. I give all thanks to Dr Timothy for helping me to cure my Herpes virus problem which i have been going through for the past 3 years, i really tried many prescribed medicine but could not work for me till i was privileged to meet this Dr. Timothy who helped me with a positive solution and cure my herpes with herbal remedies. You can also be cured if you are suffering of any types of HERPES by contacting Dr. Timothy via [email protected]

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