Treatment of meningitis. Viral meningitis is a disease that usually
does not bring any consequences. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that can
lead to death. The treatment of meningitis depends on the
cause that caused it: viruses , fungi or bacteria . The latter requires immediate hospitalization.
The first two, however, may or may not require admission to a hospital, depending on the
patient’s condition. 85% of cases of meningitis are caused by a
virus. Almost all others are bacterial . Only a few are of fungal origin, or caused by fungi.
Most viral meningitis is cured without problem. Meanwhile, the treatment of bacterial meningitis
requires an emergency intervention and that of the fungal one depends on the associated
factors. Cases of meningitis associated with the use
of medications are known . This disease can also be the result of a blow to the head.
A very small percentage of cases of meningitis have an unknown cause. Generalities of meningitis. There is a thin tissue that surrounds the
brain and spinal cord. This tissue is called the meninx and its inflammation, meningitis.
The main cause of meningitis are infections , which can be caused, as already noted, by
viruses and bacteria mainly. The contagion occurs in different ways, basically
by contact with microorganism carriers . These carriers can be completely healthy and still
carry bacteria or viruses in their nose or throat. The microorganisms are transported
by droplets of saliva that are expelled when coughing, sneezing or talking. In the case of fungal meningitis, it usually
occurs in people with weakened immune systems , such as AIDS patients, cancer or leukemia.
Also in those who have had long treatments with antibiotics or other immunosuppressants.
The fungi transmitting the disease are mainly present in the excrement of pigeons, fruits,
milk, among others. The treatment of meningitis. The treatment of viral meningitis is not specific
. Most people who get this type of disease heal by themselves, in a period ranging from
7 to 10 days. However, individuals infected with influenza or herpesvirus usually require
treatment to be cured. Meanwhile, the treatment of bacterial meningitis
demands, first of all, an emergency hospitalization . The defenses of this type of patients can
not fight the infection. Therefore, the administration of antibiotics is required in the shortest
possible time. The medical staff will decide what type of
antibiotic will be used for the treatment of bacterial meningitis . Everything will
depend on the bacteria that causes the infection . This can not be determined immediately,
so doctors act based on the probability of the type of bacteria, depending on the age
of the patient. It is common that additional treatments should
also be used for the cerebral edema that appears, for dehydration and for seizures that usually
accompany inflammation of the meninx. In case of fluid accumulation between the meninges,
procedures are usually performed to drain or eliminate it by surgery. Forecast and prevention. Although the treatment of bacterial meningitis
is correctly applied, this disease can lead to death . There are three decisive factors
for the forecast: The age of the patient.
The type of bacteria that causes the infection. The previous health status of the individual.
Mortality is quite high in children under one year old and in the elderly. If the treatment
of meningitis is performed early and adequately, the mortality rate is around 10%. However,
between 5% and 20% of those who have suffered this disease are left with neurological sequelae
. The most frequent are: Deafness.
Cognitive problems, Epilepsy . The most effective prevention measure is vaccines
. The most common is that of meningococcus. However, it should be noted that it is not
one hundred percent effective, since it does not cover all strains of bacteria that cause
meningitis. There is also a vaccine against pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae . Anyone who has been in close contact with
a maningitis patient should receive treatment . If the bacteria of origin is meningococcal,
it is advisable that those who have been close to the patient apply the vaccine. In all cases
a treatment based on antibiotics will be applied.