Matinum

Taking Charge of Your Health


Hello I’m Dr. Steven Messer, chair of
homeopathic medicine and pharmacology at the Southwest College of Naturopathic
Medicine and Health Sciences in Tempe, Arizona. on June second 2017 I had the
great pleasure and honor to host a scientific presentation by Dr. Iris Bell,
entitled “Understanding the Biological Basis of Homeopathic Medicine Response.”
Dr. Bell is one of the most important and prolific researchers in the world
working to understand the basic science underlying homeopathy. A full list of her
publications can be found on her website at irisbell.com. Homeopathy is a 200
year old system of using highly diluted medicines in a paradoxical and
counterintuitive way to stimulate healing and ill people this use of
extremely dilute and thereby seemingly inert medicines as well as the
counterintuitive approach of giving an ill person a drug whose primary action
mimics their already present disease state has caused much of the scientific
community to reject homeopathy out of hand.
However a large body of scientific research exists that support the
clinical benefits of homeopathy. There are now well over a thousand published
clinical trials of homeopathy the majority of which are positive these
cover a wide range of clinical conditions from cancer patients at the
medical university of vienna greatly outliving their expected survival when
homeopathy was added to their conventional cancer care, to severely
septic Israeli ICU patients significantly cutting their mortality
rate when compared to controls when homeopathy was added to their treatment
regimen to the significantly superior results in patients consulting
homeopathic clinics compared to those utilizing conventional drug therapy in a
multi-site international outcome study of the most common routine conditions
seen often in primary care practices and yet in spite of all the clinical
research supporting the benefits of homeopathic medicine serious questions
still haunt homeopathy in the public perception these are:
1 – how could medicines that are so dilute that there is seemingly nothing
left in them possibly have any effect at all? And 2 – how does giving a medicine
which produces the same symptoms a patient already has helped them to heal;
what might the mechanism of action of this be? These are the very questions
that Dr. Bell explores and elucidates in this wonderful presentation I encourage
you to sit back and enjoy this remarkable exploration of the world of
cutting-edge scientific investigation into the basic principles of homeopathy ok well thanks again Steven for inviting
me and hopefully this will be a very fruitful discussion we wish there were
definitive answers on homeopathy but we know that right now we just have a lot
of promising clues as to what we’re dealing with
so come whoops let me try and get my slides to move okay is everybody seeing
the overview slide right now is that yes ok good so basically what I’m going to
do is try to help you structure your thinking about what goes on with the
questions we should be addressing that people have been addressing in
homeopathy and give you an update on the state of the science particularly in
more basic science of remedies and then how it might inform us in our biological
research of which there is a substantial amount but not really quite enough to
pin down everything and then so what we’re basically going to be doing is
trying to follow the thread of data from the structure of the remedy to the
signal from the remedy to the response of the complex adaptive organism as a
system so tall order but that’s what we’re going to go through and you know
please feel free to ask questions and if something is really urgent let Steven
know and he and breakdown and let me explain
something or fix something if I can so the first point is to sort of organize
this graphically to give you the idea we know we start with remedies we know
somehow they manage to tell the body to heal and the question is the core
questions are always how does that happen because it’s such a dramatic
response from such a small signal and we’ll come back to that issue over and
over again what you see listed under each of these four green kinds of
circles or ellipses is the kinds of topics that have begun to be what that
as playing a role in this story so for the remedy turns out we’re finding nano
particle or nano structures at a whole different scale then we typically focus
on in conventional herbal medicine or drug conventional drugs but we also know
there’s a literature on electromagnetic signals optical signals and even from
him that remedies may activate a kind of quantum mechanical phenomenon known as
entanglement then how that could all be going on with the same remedy has been a
mystery I’ll try and give you the sense that I think it all does go back to the
way we make remedies but that that’s still yet to be completely resolved then
the signal properties that come from that remedy whatever they are there’s an
interaction there with the living system and there are certain adaptive phenomena
that have been seen in living systems all of which rely on TV on the body
being a complex adaptive system I then parsed out the notion that there may be
obviously interfaces that are picking up this signal and amplify leading to
the amplification tuna so one of them is likely to be the olfactory system as a
sensory system it’s one of the ways hanaman originally described methods for
administering remedies there’s also the immune system and then both of these can
be tied in with areas that have been studied more recently like cell danger
or damage response patterns responses to these signals and then just biological
cell signaling then you get all the way to the organism and you realize well if
you follow hering’s law of cure you have to understand that the body is
self-organizing as a complex adaptive system and that somehow when that signal
gets to the body it’s the white signal and it’s amplified by the organism then
it stimulates a lot of reorganization in the way the body’s functioning so to
back out from that broad picture that is what we’re going to cover during this
whole talk I wanted to emphasize a more simplistic way of thinking about what
homeopathic remedy is as opposed to a conventional pharmaceutical drug
conventional drugs tend to be seen more as ligands for local receptors in the
body yes they stress the body but there’s not very much attention paid to
that aspect of their effects unless for example they’re an addictive drug and
then you end up inducing a dedication with addictive phenomena and you end up
having withdrawal phenomena when you stop it well with homeopathy I think and
this is this is going to seem puzzling to you over and over as you start
hearing me talk about the nanoparticles but I think the emphasis is really much
more on the remedy as a stressor or than it is as any type of actual
molecular ligand that is speaking just to local receptors I think it’s
instructing the body to make changes so before we launch into some of the
details of this let’s just quickly review the idea of how do people make
homeopathic remedies if something is insoluble like a metal source remedy for
example and actually many conventional drugs have the situation – they are
frequently ground up in some kind of benign medium in homeopathy that’s
typically dry lactose and that’s called Treacher asian if you have an herbal
source or some kind of botanical source material or frequently an animal source
material you frequently start off actually with a teacher that’s in
ethanol and that material that you get either from this grinding process or
from the tincture is serially diluted typically in an ethanol water solution
sometimes just in plain distilled water but in any event that’s what’s done and
in various ratios of one to ten one to 100 even one to 50,000 and so on but
each solution step is then followed by turbulence in the solution and that we
call an homeopathy succussion where you’re agitating the contents of the
vial classically we make these remedies glass some companies do make them in
plastic and that raises some questions about or some manufacturers making
things that do or don’t resemble whatever Hahnemann said he discovered
originally that’s an important thing to think about so if you’re mechanically
banging this stuff up either with grinding or with turbulence and liquid
what could be going on here well there’s now quite a substantial literature in
the world of what’s called nanoscience that basically says you’re breaking this
stuff up into smaller and smaller forms the initial level or scale that you make
it into is probably considered micro scale on a micrometer or micrometer
level and if you keep on doing this you’ll end up in a nano scale which is
even smaller forms of the original material what’s fascinating about this
is that when you get down to the nano scale these tiny forms actually acquire
properties that are a function of their tiny size they are not necessarily a
function of their directly of their source material and not of the quantity
necessarily although that can be relevant and we’ll talk about that much
more in a little while so let’s take a look at what what are we talking about
with nano scale well that’s actually 10 to the minus ninth of a meter and what
you see over here with the red blood cell of a rat actually is this is
obviously not not actual reality because this is a magnified blood cell but if
you look at where it says a hundred nanometers that’s the high end of five
proportionately speaking of what a nano particle is and you can see how tiny it
is relatively the size of an actual cell whereas when you get up to a micron or a
thousand nanometers it’s still very small relative to the cell but it’s much
larger than a nanometer scale if you look over at the left side you see some
interesting points for example viruses range in size from 10 to 150 nanometers
if you get really small DNA ulysses are actually running to nanometers and Adam
is actual run 1/10 of a nanometer in size so it’s
a tiny tiny scale that we’re talking about that you really can at best see
with electron microscopy so one of the breakthrough findings and a lot of
follow-up work has come out of India and one particular research group at the
Indian Institute of Technology they originally published this paper on the
left here on actually six different metal source remedies and they used
electron microscopy and they demonstrated that they could find even
in potencies at 30 C or 200 C which is you may recall our theoretically diluted
past Avogadro’s number for the original bulk material but not apparently for the
nanoparticle source material that at those potencies they could still find
nanoparticles present there was a subsequent study looking at three
different plant remedies at up to a 15 C potency and again they found
nanoparticles form the scale thing is is at a hundred nanometers so you see
things that are very very tiny present in there
of course you start asking the question well have they directly confirmed that
this is a source material as opposed to a bunch of contaminants that have come
in through the gilliland or the glassware or just bad luck of the
preparation of the material and that would be an argument of many skeptics
but that’s not actually what the data support at this point other people have
followed one study the one you see on the left here was published several
years ago on copper as a copper metal as a source and they found extraordinarily
tiny sized nanoparticles they actually were so small they’re actually in the
range of what would be called quantum dots because they’re smaller than ten
nanometers now not all of them are but many of them are soothing on the right
side you see the people have studied iron Metallica or faraman telecom and
they’ve also found very tiny less than five nanometer sized quantum dot harvick
nanoparticles in their samples these people have also done other very
sophisticated measurement techniques where they can confirm the presence of
the source material in these samples where they’re finding the nail particles
so they’re they’re going beyond just showing you pictures of things hanging
out in these drops and actually demonstrating that it is the source
material itself and you’ll see some data here in a minute here’s a more recent
replication study by another by one of the groups has done a great deal of work
looking at gold as a source of the remedy at different potencies all the
way up to extraordinarily high potency and a cross see potencies 1m and 10m and
50 M and even cm potency so we’re talking about in theory profoundly
diluted materials but we what you see when you look are not always regularly
shaped but they feel they are nanoparticles of the source material and
there’s quite a bit of variability in the size of these particles now you
would ask well if you keep on banging this stuff around with succussion why
would you have larger nanoparticles when you have the maximum potency here and
that may be partly a function it hasn’t been fully demonstrated but partly that
sometimes these materials can attract on to their surface other nanoparticles and
they also attract anything else that might be in solution with them and what
was not specified in this study that we looked at more
was for example did they use glassware did they use a cork stopper as opposed
to a silicone stopper so there could be extra materials it could be adding
contaminants but again we’re talking about people who have demonstrated that
they can find actual gold in these very high potencies now this is one of
several studies a fairly recent one on the gold where this group not only
showed the electron microscopy but also showed the profound of the presence of
the element gold in all of these potencies now you can see that they find
a lot of other things some of which may come from the dil youant
the alcohol water or whatever they needed in some of it may come from other
sources like small amounts of contaminants that are there
hard to say so the glassware could contribute but other things could too
now this group has also gone on to look at a plant remedy and they’re one of
several groups that have demonstrated the plant remedies well they have very
irregularly shaped nanoparticles have quite a few of them and they do attach
to each other so you get a fair amount of particle size variation which in this
particular study ranged from about 72 nanometers up to 233 nanometers so we’re
still talking about very small materials but very irregular agglomerated material
a lot of questions about you know how pure do we need the remedy to be and I
don’t think we have an answer to that right now again they did do an analysis
as best they could of the elements that they found in these different samples
they tested and interestingly here you see a lot of carbon oxygen and silicon
silicon the elements which are not surprising
because this is a plant source material Hypericum which is st. John’s wort so
you know excuse me we know that we have all of these materials present you can
also see a fairly large amount of variability in the hype in the Hypericum
nano particle sizes that are being documented now my own research group
went ahead and we looked at homeopathic remedies from the manufacturer Hahnemann
laboratories here in the United States where we had the make of succuss
controls and unfocused controls as well as the source material remedy and we
used a technology called nano particle tracking analysis which is a little bit
different than electron microscopy and has strengths and weaknesses compared
with that but what we happen to find was a remarkable similarity in the size of
the nano particles it was documented across 60 30c and 200 see of a silver
derived Argentum italicum remedy and you can see that there were some nano
particles in the succuss controls at potency and there were some but not as
many in the unsuccesful all control that simply had the same bill youant but it
hadn’t been to cuff now it hadn’t been to cuss formally by the manufacturer but
these materials were shipped from California where they’re based to I
believe it was Northwestern University in the Midwest so there was obviously
some unintentional and uncontrolled percussion we made an effort to put
every sample in the same box when we did this kind of thing so that
if the if the carrier whether it was FedEx or UPS really Josh hold the
material that everything would be jostled at the same time so for whatever
that and this was all liquid samples so you know be aware that this is not
representative necessarily what would happen with pellets but there with the
actual liquid well there’s more to the particles than just the fact they’re
very small it turns out that their surface properties are really critical
as to whether they attract other things on to their surface whether they’re
stable unstable they fall apart they don’t fall apart as time goes on while
they’re sitting there in solution and one of the ways you can start trying to
quantify that property is by measuring something called theta potential now it
basically is a crude indication of the stability of the surface charge of the
particle its measured in millivolts and it turns out that if in absolute value
it is either greater than plus 30 millivolts or smaller than minus 30
millivolts it’s going to be a more stable particle and what you see here
was most of the things that were deliberately succuss were awfully close
to that minus 30 cutoff the one that was the least stable was the unfocussed
ethanol control and the most stable interestingly for whatever reason was
they are gentle metallic them 60 so interesting observation again this
exploratory some people have followed up with work of this type many people have
not and I think that’s very unfortunate because the size of the particles is it
is informative but you want to begin to say something about the properties and
what you’re dealing with on these particles we then followed up with
another study looking at Joe Semyon potencies again
see potency 6:30 and 200 C with the cuss controls and we included the same
unsecured control but again Heidemann Laboratories has made a point during
their manufacturing history of using the methods that samuel hahnemann
reported and/or would have had available to him at the time he did this work
originally 200 years ago well what did he have for stoppers well he probably
had glass stoppers maybe available he also had cork natural cork which is
basically from oak tree bark and I began to suspect that maybe the reason I was
having these awfully large larger particles and more of them was because I
was actually putting plant-based material botanical material from the
cork into the solution when it was jostle or deliberately because if that
was the case that I was guessing that I would see fewer nanoparticles and
different nanoparticle properties if I use silicone Stoppers so as just an
extra group we did several vials that were uncertain troll solution just the
Billy one but they were suffered with silicone Stoppers not natural cork
Stoppers and you can see that there was a difference in what the concentration
of nanoparticles you see at different sizes and this is just average sizes
anyway well then we again did the zeta potential and it was even more
informative again what you see is in anything that was actually officially
succuss had a more stable zeta potential but when you look at the silicone uncie
controls yeah there were nanoparticles there but
they were they their data potential is very close to zero and they were very
unstable so they were not um this is not just a
phenomenon of contaminants this is a phenomenon of the manufacturing method
that hanaman originally developed because he sure didn’t have silicone
stoppers or other kinds of rubber stoppers to work with in his day so this
is very interesting something again that needs to be further evaluated in terms
of well what kind of remedies do we end up with if a manufacturer uses more
modern materials and methods in making their remedies well in the background at
almost the same time as the nanoparticle finding was published there was a great
deal of interest generated around the notion that remedies are classically
made in glassware and glassware is typically made from some kind of well
some kind of basically silicon based material it has other things in it but
you’re going to see a whole variety of literally pieces of the glassware
appearing as particles if you will that are knocked off into the solution by the
physical force of the succussion you see a far higher level this is just one of
several studies that demonstrated this whenever something was succuss material
in glass as opposed to when it was made in plastic so the silicone the silica
was there the silicon content that’s the element and whenever silicon comes in
contact with oxygen which is pretty common in homeopathic manufacturing
there’s no oxygen free environments that are they’re typically made in
necessarily you’re going to form silica because that is silicon dioxide and when
you do the silica is potentially a factor in the remedy
the trust is going to have silica in it so people were saying well lovely that
you found that but who cares because that doesn’t tell us a unique signal
well there is some evidence however that if anything is to coast there is some
biological property that it may exert this was a study a number of years ah he was um um dr. Bell yet could you
could you repeat what you said we lost your audio for a minute or two this
dissolution I came on Buster again yeah we’re not hearing you right now oh
dear oh yeah now you’re back sorry you know what happened I don’t know
either well let’s keep trying okay I can try to switch over to a headphone but I
I thought the phone would be yeah I think now we just lost without hearing
I’m hearing her I’m here quite clearly on my phone line just for the purpose is
enough yeah hmm so can you all hear me now now we hear you all right well let
me know as I talk about this okay okay this so what this slide basically showed
was that a combination remedy it had multiple botanical sources that the one
that ends in that – – had the biggest effect of closing this wound that was
artificially caused in the petri dish of the self plane succuss solvent had a
biological effect it did help do some healing so that silica that’s floating
around in there may in fact be biologically active and there actually
is every reason to think that would be but when you had unsuccessful that you
didn’t see as much biological effect so this is a very small indicator the
percussion is doing something to generate biologically active materials
in a remedy well in addition to what I just showed you about silica people
hypothesized and well what’s going on here with these remedies if we have
particles is a fairly stable but still reactive on their surface what happens
if there’s a lot of silica floating around or fill it basically silica
precursors floating around in a solution that has been to cuff well this group
followed up the same original group from India with electron microscopy
demonstrating that the silicate that were knocked off the glassware we’re
actually forming silica coatings around the outside of the source nanoparticles
which is a very striking finding so you may have silica all by itself as a nano
form nano nano scale form and you may have these hybrid materials which are
the remedy source material surrounded by silica what it turns out is that silica is a
great amplifier of electronic signals all kinds of signals and it actually is
a biological signal it produces its own signal as well because it will stimulate
immune system reactions when given the opportunity to interact with immune
cells the materials can infect when they are nano scale form generate
electromagnetic signals optical signals and fascinatingly even quantum
entanglement phenomena so we’re not necessarily talking about direct
biochemical effects again we’re going back to huh maybe the fact that we made
nano structures is the source of why we’re seeing these unusual signals in
remedies well what do I mean by that well Nobel Prize winner montagnier
several years ago now demonstrated that if he homeopathic we prepared various
bacteria he could actually detect a unique electromagnetic signal in
potencies made in the X series which is the 1 to 10 dilution
Cirie’s he didn’t find it in everything but he demonstrated that it was there
and he was able to replicate this type of finding in various ways so he was
actually able to take the signal and even transmit it to bacteria that were
otherwise neutral and unaware of the this kind of information until put in
proximity to where the succuss bacteria were now in addition to that type of
thing and there have been several other studies suggestive and consistent with
electromagnetic signals there’s also some indication of optical signals many
years ago now dr. ray from I don’t remember where he where he was located
but it um he published a paper demonstrating that if something was
prepared up to a 15 C potency compared with heavy water or deuterium b2o that
if he made it with sodium chloride in the solution or lithium chloride he got
unique signals of light emission when he treated the solution by freezing it and
then hitting it with x-rays and then slowly warming it up as he slowly warmed
it up there was light released that he could quantify and this is called thermo
luminescence and you can clearly see that he found a difference there a later
group more recently in Germany has used a different technique with even higher
potencies way higher potencies and using pellets as the original source of the
remedy material compared with just plain lactose he’ll use which are globules and
again you see in their white measurement their optical measurements you see that
the remedy appears to have properties optically that you don’t see in the
control solution now this is all followed on a whole
series of study showing that there were certain kinds of conventionally used
spectroscopy techniques that would demonstrate that remedies were different
from each other and they were different in each potency was somewhat different
from the other potency so what you see here is some data on natrum muriaticum
and knox bamaca at 60 12c and thirty see a pattern wise they are somewhat
different and the potencies are definitely different from each other
they also used not only Raman spectroscopy but something called
ultraviolet visible spectroscopy or UV vis they other groups have followed up
with other methods where they again in this case they were looking at aconite
30 C potency in multiple samples compared with placebo samples and they
too found a difference with the measurement of the UV visible
spectroscopy that you see with the the vellum or the aconite versus placebo sorry about the dog barking there’s a
delivery that has shown up at the door but I don’t have to deal with it we
shall proceed the homeopathic remedies have also been studied with more
controversial techniques we used another optical laser tech based technique
called gas discharge visualization again many years ago now where we looked at
nature me repulsive chilla and lattices in potency that came off of
pellets sources and we compared them with plane pellets with no remedy on
them and clean solvent and again you see that the properties of that material or such that the theorem had different
optical properties than the controls so what we’re saying here is we’ve got the
remedy potencies getting into a unique form and it turns out that now particles
may actually be able and remedy certainly due to structure water when
they get into solution so people have even done studies where they take the
liquid form of the remedy and put it into just plain distilled or purified
water and it appears to cause the induce the formation of nanostructures in that
water which is very striking and that has other signal type properties as well
additional people have further hypothesized that it could be the
electromagnetic signals coming off the remedy whatever it is which are actually
structuring water or otherwise signaling the body however it does that to
activate self-regulatory or modulatory adaptation through various biological
mechanism okay so let’s look at the larger moobot to the much larger picture
and that is that complex systems tend to be complex they have multiple parts they
have interrelationships and they have interactions so they don’t just sit
there like a car where if you take out one piece of it you can take it out
replace it and on goes the car in a human being or a living organism there’s
more of an interrelationship the body knows if the appendix was removed or the
gallbladder was taken out or the the liver replaced with a transplant it
knows that and what people in the complex systems
research world have focused on is trying to really change the whole scientific
paradigm of how we see the body because their point is the vitalism that was
characteristic of Hahnemann’s approach to thinking about health and homeopathy
that there was a top-down flow of information is is true but the mechanist
the the more reductionistic modern scientists I tend to see that the flow
of information goes up you know that we start with all the parts we understand
the part so we put them back together again and lo and behold understand
something in theory but in reality a complex system has both top-down
information flow bottom-up information flow and interactions along the way
between the parts and that all of that information flow actually generates sort
of an emergent set of properties for the organism the living system so the model
that that I suggested I adapted it from other literature’s that I ran into was
that the remedy somehow is serving as first of all a relevant or salient
signal and as someone of a bio mild biological stressor that tell Susie
tells the cell and you better adapt here if this if this dresser showed up in in
larger quantity you’re doomed you would die but if it only sort of stresses the
cell and the cell can make repairs can make adaptations what actually happens
is greater resistance to that same stressor but also to any other stressor
that might be similar that’s called cross resistance if you will in some of
the literature on adaptive systems and that’s a very important concept because
in homeopathy we what we’re saying is you already
generated a really stressed body and set of cells what we’re trying to do is
speak to the net or emergent screwed up noise that your body is making we want
to speak to that until the body hey you better get your act together and go back
the other way and I’ll show you in a couple minutes here how I think we can
adapt some other scientific research to understand that so first of all if such
a thing that we’re getting received how could it get through well as I mentioned
at the beginning the olfactory sensory system is capable of getting the signal
straight into the brain into areas that regulate autonomic nervous system and
immune function so there’s a lot of potential crosstalk there is the
potential of triggering the immune system and cell to cell signaling and
this type of phenomenon has been found with nanoparticles so again let me
emphasize we are not necessarily saying a pharmacologic effect we’re just saying
a signaling effect but there is evidence that that signaling effect occurs and
then it’s been taken up by the immune system and other cell to cell signaling
mechanisms in the body which then carrying and amplify the response to
that tiny signal so this is just a diagram of an article that that
highlights that concept that exogenously those can include things like viruses
and bacteria but also nanoparticles that’s been demonstrated and once you
get all this attempt of the body and the cells to reorganize you have a lot of
cellular response going on this slide is you don’t need to follow the details of
it but it’s just to give you that sense if you start with a stem-cell kind of
beginning you actually can end up differentiating some of these original
cells into various white cell participants in the immune system that
have various functions including monocytes macrophages and Hritik cells
now it turns out that there’s even been research demonstrating fairly recently
that depending on what’s going on with the cell and the environment of that
cell you actually can stimulate with a nanoparticle
either pro-inflammatory or anti inflammatory responses really depending
on a variety of conditions so again the emphasis here is don’t think of the
remedy as if it’s a drug separate from the body if you have to think of it as
something that interacts with the body and that the net effect depends on that
interaction so do we have any hints that that might be going on well years ago
there was a group in Brazil that used a very complex homeopathic medication for
treating cancer and immune and AIDS patients and they expanded it into other
types of immune system conditions but what they found was in both cellular and
animal studies that they could Rajal eight the cytokine response of
macrophages and gene expression of those macrophages by giving the verum Canova
which was the combination homeopathic remedy versus control and so they began
to refer to this material as an immunomodulatory agent just to go back
to another diagram to emphasize to you there are various elements involved in
this sort of stress response of cells when it
danger signal was picked up and elements that are shown on the left part of their
interrelationships they can lead to being sick or to healing you see a list
here on the right of things like reactive oxygen species heat shock
protein responses Vega sites of macrophages and t-cell responses
cytokine release and even central nervous system function including the
olfactory system but not limited to that those are all elements of this network
this biochemical or bodily or immune system or central nervous system immune
system network that we’ve been talking about these are all elements for which
there is some evidence that homeopathic remedies when administered in controlled
conditions have modulatory effects on all of these so this is not just a
theory it actually is supported by data so let’s assume that all these responses
are going on how do they happen and how can we get such a big response well so
far in my review of the literature I found three different kinds of material
of processes that are known to occur in complex adaptive systems they don’t tend
to occur without the adaptive the complex adaptive system interaction and
they all could play some sort of a relevant role in what goes on in the
body once the remedy signal is received the first is stochastic resonance
another more broad term is called home ESA’s which has been talked about in the
homeopathy literature for a while and a third is an area that that my group has
studied for a number of years in different contexts
it’s called time-dependent sensitization where yes the external stressor if you
will sets off the adaptive response but it takes off on its own
the next time the body encounters something the response is larger than it
was the first time it thought so let’s go into these in a little more detail in
stochastic resonant you see the notion that if you put a weak signal embedded
into a noise it just happens to also contain the same frequency as the weak
signal though the noise amplifies that signal to me that sounds like what we’re
talking about when we’re talking about giving a simillimum because we know it’s
a weak signal we know it’s a small dose of a small item and even if it’s
nanoparticles we’re giving a small amount of it but it has a unique
property to it which captures the information of the original source
material and that information is a similar match a pattern match to the
disease biology that this individual is suffering from so it could be that yeah
you have to be if somebody is sick they will get well when you give the correct
remedy because you have to have the noise going on to amplify the signal so
that the body can say oh what’s that all about so just to give you some kind of
maybe simpler example of stochastic residents that’s been seen in biology
and behavior if you have an animal who has a predator and a man on the million
on an animal that’s a prey animal and a predator is anywhere remotely nearby a
tiny tiny part per trillion kind of quantity of the odor of that predator
will activate a whole biological and behavioral response of the prey animal
to escape to do what it can it will it will be activated similarly even in
crayfish they’ve studied that if the crayfish predator is anywhere nearby
the the vibrations in the water of that predator for the crayfish will actually
trigger the crayfish to run away as fast as he can
this is a stochastic resonance kind of phenomenon the signal is weak but the
amplification is going on in the organism because the signal turns out to
mean something to that individual now in her mises we get into what would be sort
of formally called a nonlinear biphasic dose response relationship it has been
demonstrated as a phenomenon with literally physical stress psychological
stress actual drugs or just toxic chemicals from the environment and it
tends to occur when you give a low dose typically below what’s considered in the
world of toxicology whoops sorry the no observed adverse effect level or
the noël level below that cutoff is where you begin to see hormesis you
don’t see it when the material was a toxic level you’re going to see more of
an inhibitory effect for example of a toxic chemical or drug but if you were
to give a tiny amount of it that was below the toxic level you would actually
stimulate this hormetic response of the organism as the dose goes down now what
do we know about homeopathic we prepared materials well there were some very
early studies in the 1990s and even earlier by groups that looked at the
question of whether hormesis and already injured self could trigger some kind of
recovery experience and if it did could you find a parallel of this recovery
well so that I believe they point and the cells with either arsenic or
cadmium or heat shock itself and what they found was that there were certain
the heat shock proteins which are a protective protein within a cell that
help it deal with and recover from damage caused by heat or other kind or
chemical exposures top poisons like this and there was a greater survival the
more similar the material was to the nature of the damage that the cell had
encountered so they actually did this model years ago and gave up because very
few people in homeopathy know what to do with this at the time I think it’s very
fundamental research that should be followed up on now this hormesis concept
gets even more orally and complicated there was a study in bacterial
metabolism that this graph illustrates for you where they prepared formaldehyde
in Si potencies up to about a 20 C so from aldehyde is obviously a toxin for
bacterial cells and what they saw was actually a sinusoidal dose response
curve clearly nonlinear but some potencies if you will these dilution
elements actually reduce the metabolism of the cell but other potencies produced
an increase in the metabolism if you kept going you went back down again and
if you kept going even further with potent potent ization you ended up with
a reversal and direction again and then another drop off so you see this sort of
sinusoidal manifestation of hormesis where there could be more than just one
simple curve where okay you get too much you’re toxic you get less of it and
you’re healing Oh now a third kind of phenomenon that I’ve
looked at is called time-dependent sensitization and we used it in human
subjects we studied it in human subjects who were given individually relevant or
salient homeopathic remedies while we were measuring their brain waves the
remedy was administered in the laboratory by sniffing the bottles and
we controlled for just sniffing the dilly Wintour control solution and we
are in this particular study we studied fibromyalgia patients who show the
clinical response to their individualized remedy compared with
placebo but we also found for example that the brainwave response from
baseline the very first time they encountered their remedy again
controlled for just the active sniffing and the three-month follow-up period
after they had taken the remedy in this case at home they were taking LM
potencies and we took whatever potency they were being treated with when they
started treatment and when they were at the three-month point and had them sniff
that versus control so you can see the placebo group just showed a decrease in
the brainwave response over time but the verum group the ones that got the actual
individualized remedy actually showed an increase in the brainwave response over
time that is they got a lower dose and their brainwave responds got larger we
followed this up with another study where we recruited people screen them
for being more remedy like of sulfur red and homeopathic sulfur homeopathic
pulsatilla types and then we administered the
remedy or placebo to those people in different potencies over a three-week
period where they came to the laboratory once a week for three weeks and then
what you see in this graph is the average of the eight presentations that
were randomized and blinded when people were asked to sniff the
material during the course of these three sessions and so just to add even
more complexity and confusion we in this analysis divided people into people who
said by a standardized validated questionnaire that they were high in
chemical environmental chemical intolerance or low in environmental
chemical intolerance and what you see for example in the sulfur group is that
the sulfur group was much more variable every time they ran into the actual
remedy they were either going down or they were going up but they weren’t
doing a fairly flat response that the people who were low in chemical
intolerance were doing now let me remind you that many people in the world of
homeopathy have talked about these chemically intolerant patients as what
they call universal provers people who would show a response to almost any
remedy you tested them with no matter how close or not close it was to their
actual clinically indicated remedy with pulsatilla it was a different pattern
but was also quite divergent in that the high chemical intolerance people went
way down whereas the people who are low in chemical intolerance ended up over
the course of the sessions up in the response of their brainwaves in alpha
brainwave activity to what they were sniffing so let’s sort of back up again
to the notion of well do we know anything about mechanisms of these
things well you could possibly construe time-dependent sensitization as a type
of hormesis and if you do then there is a literature on the types of mechanisms
biologically that hormesis can trigger first of all we know nanoparticles can
trigger hormesis it’s been repeatedly demonstrated
and those are just review articles on it there a couple of other papers I’ve also
found that are that have come out after this last review again demonstrating
that yes nanoparticles in low dose trigger hormesis now there are different
mechanistic types that have been documented one is somewhat more receptor
based and you can see that there variations of what the receptor might do
to certain kinds of quantities of the material and there may be different
receptors that are stimulatory or inhibitory to the responses so you get
again of the potential for a very complex response but there are
mechanisms that have been identified with various materials
there’s also cell to cell signaling which was demonstrated to some extent in
a homeopathy study using one remedy in animals that had developed a and
experimentally induced cancer and were given a remedy that actually helped
resolve the cancer but also produced measurable changes in the cell signaling
pathways associated with the death of cancer cells so if we if we again step
even further back now and say well with homeopathy with the biological research
where do we have literature in the field that gives us some hints as to what we
might want to be studying and well the the better literature is in infection an
allergy to some extent in inflammation and injury and also curiously a very
growing literature in cancer there’s an increasing number of papers particularly
coming out of India showing that various homeopathic we prepared remedies have
anti-cancer effects in different kinds of conditions now a starting place and
that’s all I’m going to call it right now because there are all these other
mechanisms that I’ve hinted out as we’ve been talking macrophages look like a
good place to start based on where the literature originally pointed us that
points us to looking at the gene expression patterns of these macrophages
and the the biological response mediators that the gene expression
patterns lead to and that would be things like cytokine changes and heat
shock protein responses and so on just to confuse matters I just wanted to give
you an overview diagram of the signaling pathways that people have identified in
cell I doubt this is a perfect cell and it’s not every cell and some of them are
related to cancer cells more than to convention to healthy cells but you will
find in the literature even on homeopathy now you will see points made
in some of the papers that you’ll see in your bibliography and that you went into
if you just do a PubMed search that a lot of these kinds of pathways have show
some indication of activation when a remnant homeopathic remedy capable of
inducing the death of cancer cells is administered to those cells in a
controlled situation and many times the control material doesn’t have this
effect and many times the homeopathic remedy strangely enough will stimulate
the death of the cancer cell but not the death of the normal cell so here’s this
is not a study of homeopathy this is a study of very low doses of gold
nanoparticles showing again a relatively focused study on skin fel gene
expression and they did both non chronic or more acute exposure to
this one-tenth of an animal or quantity of these gold nanoparticles versus
chronic which you know was obviously a longer-term exposure and you can see
that there were different patterns if they gave an acute as opposed to a
chronic exposure to the same nanoparticles in low dose and you can
see that there was quite a persistent and very striking response again across
many of the kinds of mediators or factors that we talked about and more
just by giving the acute dose so this is again a hint that we’re in the right
ballpark we just need to start doing studies of this type this is a study
just to illustrate to you just using this a very well known remedy cal
carrier carbonic a– in potency that it can actually induce some of these
pathways involved in modulating immune system responses and leading to the
death of the cancer cell and a very striking kind of ability to cause
regression of the Killers that have been experimentally giving to these
experimental animals so what about in human cells well they haven’t done very
many studies but this is a recent study using arnica where they looked at the
modulation of gene expression in a specific human leukemia monocytic sent a
line and again what you see at different potencies we’re pulling the samples here
but at 5 c 9 t + 15 c you see certain gene expression factors are actually
increased and some are decreased and this is compared often with the control
material so you begin to see some hint again that what we’re talking about is
not just now there are several studies now
showing gene modulation effects of homeopathic remedies in various
preparations so this is not far from the only one so let’s just revisit this
whole notion that we’re dealing with living systems that are complex the
individual parts interact they interconnect they do all kinds of things
and that complexity arises as an emergent property of the overall system
that the individual parts just don’t have the dynamics of all of this are
nonlinear which means small changes can cause large effects in the system if you
hit the system it would just the right timing with just the right signal it is
very sensitive to initial conditions it’s related to what has been called
chaos theory many years ago but complexity is a little bit more directly
relevant to living systems per se and what you see is living systems are
self-organizing that have an emergent order but no single point of control I
clearly the brain is a very important hub for the way the body works but it’s
not the only important point of control in the system it does interact with all
the other parts of the body as it’s talking to them now to summarize for you
do we have some data to suggest that this complex system concept means
something in homeopathy well we’ve now get data with at least with the remedy
APIs Josa Miam arnica and arsenicum album different model systems showing
that these remedies do modulate gene expression we also have some very
fascinating data from Steven baumgartner’s research group in Europe
and Scandinavia where they studied bio crystallization patterns
very complex patterns that a remedy could induce in plants in plant
materials in solution and that those patterns would differ substantially from
the controls then we have this issue of the signaling networks we talked about
and local healing mechanisms now in actual living people do we have any kind
of suggestion that that these nonlinear dynamical effects might occur well we do
in a study that our group did on young adults who were sleeping in the
laboratory we took a look at their slow-wave sleep so their non REM sleep
and we scored it over several cycles of you know when you cycle through sleep
you have non REM and REM rapid eye movement cycles and we took a look at a
particular measure of what would be considered complexity this measure of
complexity is called multi scale entropy far be it for me to be able to explain
it our statistician knew how to do it and he calculated it using the frequency
data the raw data from slow-wave sleep of these young adults when they either
received a remedy or they received nothing the next night this is all
controlled for their baseline sleep and a baseline test when they just got
placebo pellets without any remedy attached one group of the people got
caffeic ruta a different group got knocks bollocky again they were
pre-screened to have constitutional types where one dose of the remedy might
be expected to do something to them they were people with a history of coffee
induced insomnia but they were not drinking coffee during the course of the
study what you see here is first of all the cafe at cruda and Nux vomica induced
a change in complexity in opposite direction
when the remedy was given so the cafe accrued ax increased and the nitronic
had decreased the complexity of the brain wave signal in these people over
the course of a sleep period of a sleeping night the next night we had
prophesied there would be an adaptive rebound effect and indeed that’s what we
saw so you see that the cafe accrue to people showed an increased complexity
the day they got the remedy a decreased complexity the next night in contrast
the Mac sonica people who decrease complexity on the night they got the
remedy they showed a relative increase across all REM cycles of sleep in the
complexity of their brain wave signal now is this simple to understand can I
you know easily explain it no but what I can say is what this is some direct
indication in living healthy human beings that if you give them a remedy
relevant to their particular type as a constitution you will modify the very
complex adaptive response of their brain when they are not even conscious when
they are in a sleep State so just to pull this all together and then we can
do question and answer the overview of the process is you start with the right
remedy we still have to do that we haven’t made tremendous gains in that
but we’re doing better we have many systems and help the remedy serves as a
signal to that individual organism which is having trouble with some kind of
disease process that is generating its own kind of biological noise in the
system that organism is detecting the signal amplifying that signal and then
amplifying the response across the entire network that is a living body and
that process leads to a healthier organism so that is
you know I went down into the weeds and we’ve come back up from the weeds or the
forest and the trees or however you want to look at it but that’s where we are so
the take-home points are the remedies there’s plenty of evidence now that they
contain source and silica coated nanoparticles these seem to capture the
unique signal properties of the material and if present silica actually can
amplify the biological effects of the original material do you have to have
silica no but if you do you probably get a stronger effect homeopathic healing
itself is some type of nonlinear adaptive physiological response to this
signal in the vast majority of cases at higher potency it is not a direct drug
effect it’s not a pharmacologic process how it happens probably can involve the
central nervous system gene expression immune function and inflammation
modulating all of the mediators of those and that is likely part of the
biological response amplification and the remedy effects so I will conclude
just saying disclaimer wise I am a consultant for standard homeopathic
Highlands Inc and none of the company’s products were discussed in this
presentation and none of the studies discussed here to my knowledge used any
of their products but I did want to give you that disclaimer so with that I will
stop and let’s do questions okay dr. Bell thank you so much for that
wonderful presentation the first question I think I can answer which is
somebody asked if the presentation recorded it is recorded and it will be
active available to people so next question dr. Bell
there have been any studies to investigate information transmission
between nanoparticles and bio photons from the cell the closest we’ve come are
actually some of the optical signal studies that I showed I believe that the
bio photon work will turn out to be very valuable and important I think it will
be in one sense my gas discharge visualization is the closest to
something that might be considered capable of measuring bio photons but
that’s a very controversial technique and one of the problems in this field is
yeah the bio photons are more accepted in certain areas of research at this
point but they’re they’re still scoffed at in conventional medicine and so we
often run into this issue that if you’re measuring a controversial intervention
with a controversial measurement technique you have trouble and so that’s
the best I can say right now that the skeptics will be demanding much much
more stringent evidence if you start looking there and yet that may be where
the right place to look is okay and the next question is I guess a little bit
related and I want to tell people in the in the room here if you have questions
if you want to write them down and bring them up I can ask dr. Bell and then
those of you who are online oh I see some are typed in here so we’ll get to
those next but you can also do that and I’ll see them so is there evidence so
far that nanoparticles signal is transmitted by a scalar wave phenomenon
I wish I could answer event I don’t know good question okay are you able to see
these questions no so what do I do to Center this one I just read it okay what
is the significance of the increase or decrease in brain waves in response to a
remedy these are acute responses typically
and clinically it may not have it’s more of a correlate of the biological
response we saw in that the people who were very good responders actually
showed a very unique pattern of reactivity when they sniffed the remedy
but that didn’t by itself mean that they were healed however we did do further
sub analysis in the fibromyalgia study and we found that the people who had a
spectacular clinical response when they first
sniffed the remedy and they didn’t feel well at that point but over a period of
time as we followed them those people did turn out to both globally have their
health improve and locally with the fibromyalgia tend to point pain
evaluation done by blinded evaluators that those that those two measures got
dramatically better and we could identify the people that were going to
have that by the response during the very first time they ever were exposed
to the remedy ever and that was in the laboratory during the first sniff
session so that’s the closest I can come to saying anything about that okay any
other questions from the room okay I have some I have a okay one day I won
just showed up in regards to single versus multi dosing which method of
dosing would be more effective and simple signal amplification of adaptive
responses would it depend on the disease pathology such as acute versus chronic
good question we in as you know just clinically sometimes you have to repeat
acute dosing very rapidly and very frequently in order to get the response
going it would be hard for me to make a prediction right now because in
a chronic situation it’s one dose one exposure at least the hint we have from
that gold nanoparticle study on gene expression if all you want to do is get
the signal through because you need the body to do all of its healing things one
dose may be sufficient until whatever it is that happens it so-called burns out
the remedy or ends the remedy response that giving multiple doses may not make
sense you may confuse the picture and part of
the reason I’m saying that is it in the literature on time-dependent
sensitization the original work was done with stimulant drugs like cocaine or
amphetamine and what they found was they asked the question we just lost you
tricked again dr. Bell oh no can you hear us now dr. Bell we can’t
hear you you’re still not there
oh come on back well that may be the end of the seminar buddy are you back yeah I
just gave up on my telephone for the moment okay I don’t know what happened
there so I just switched over to the computer audio okay well we’re hearing
you find out you were talking about stimulant drugs yes stimulant drugs when
given too frequently actually induced what what they termed a oscillatory
phenomenon which you know is very interesting because we have some
evidence in homeopathy that that can happen with remedies but they found that
if they kept going they would push the sensitization the amplified response up
up up up up it would peak at some point and the next
dose would actually turn around the direction of the response and it would
start going the other way so that starts you know it starts suggesting that what
the remedy is doing is taking advantage of that sort of piggybacking onto that
and causing that reversal in direction but it’s by itself it’s uh you know it
could be that if you over again if you over frequently dose you are just going
to start shoving the system and getting it confused you’re going to get
increases and decreases in the response direction and you don’t really want to
confuse it you want to you know let it know the signals there and let it do its
thing look like there’s another question I have a question for you it’s a little
bit a little bit change of topic but you know you have spoken so in so many
contexts of actual debates with skeptics too
conventional scientific conferences and so on do you see any change in the
inability of the conventional scientific world to accept this enormous body of
research and homeopathy among the skeptics I would say no when every time
I encounter some ridiculous document or online webpage or whatever they’re still
arguing dilution and they’re not aware they’re not aware of any of the research
and they’re still expecting that you that it’s absurd you know that look we
know that the only thing that can work is a pharmaceutical drug that hits its
receptors and if you don’t have enough of it you’re not going to say anything
so let’s stop arguing here that’s their position and I haven’t seen them move
ahead and understanding that there could be another set of data out there okay
okay any other questions here well looks like we’re done again I want to thank
you so much for taking the time to do this for us it’s just amazing to to see
the amount and breadth and depth of the amount of research that’s out there and
I have somebody like you who’s done so much of it yourself talking to us about
it’s just been wonderful I’ll tell you you can’t see it but along on this
question box we’re getting lots of thank yous that are coming through from the
people online they really appreciate your talk so thank you very much dr.
Bell well great I appreciate the chance to tell you about it now please feel
free to email me if you know for any reason you see you know some question
comes up later okay all right everybody have a nice day okay thanks

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