Taking Charge of Your Health

The biggest kidney stone on record
weighed more than a kilogram and was 17 centimeters in diameter. The patient didn’t actually
swallow a stone the size of a coconut. Kidney stones form inside the body, but unfortunately, they’re extremely
painful to get out. A kidney stone is a hard mass
of crystals that can form in the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Urine contains compounds
that consist of calcium, sodium, potassium, oxalate, uric acid, and phosphate. If the levels of these particles
get too high, or if urine becomes too acidic
or basic, the particles can clump together
and crystallize. Unless the problem is addressed, the crystals will gradually grow
over a few weeks, months, or even years, forming a detectable stone. Calcium oxalate is the most common
type of crystal to form this way, and accounts for about
80% of kidney stones. Less common kidney stones are made
of calcium phosphate, or uric acid. A slightly different type of stone made of the minerals magnesium
ammonium phosphate, or struvite, can be caused by bacterial infection. And even rarer stones can result
from genetic disorders or certain medications. A kidney stone can go undetected
until it starts to move. When a stone travels
through the kidney and into the ureter, its sharp edges scratch
the walls of the urinary tract. Nerve endings embedded in this tissue
transmit excruciating pain signals through the nervous system. And the scratches can send blood flowing
into the urine. This can be accompanied
by symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and a burning sensation while urinating. If a stone gets big enough
to actually block the flow of urine, it can create an infection,
or back flow, and damage the kidneys themselves. But most kidney stones
don’t become this serious, or even require invasive treatment. Masses less than five millimeters
in diameter will usually pass out
of the body on their own. A doctor will often simply recommend
drinking large amounts of water to help speed the process along, and maybe taking some pain killers. If the stone is slightly larger,
medications like alpha blockers can help by relaxing the muscles
in the ureter and making it easier
for the stone to get through. Another medication called
potassium citrate can help dissolve the stones by creating
a less acidic urine. For medium-sized stones up to about
ten millimeters, one option is pulverizing them
with soundwaves. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
uses high-intensity pulses of focused ultrasonic energy
aimed directly at the stone. The pulses create vibrations inside
the stone itself and small bubbles jostle it. These combined forces crush the stone
into smaller pieces that can pass out of the body more easily. But zapping a stone with sound
doesn’t work as well if it’s simply too big. So sometimes, more invasive
treatments are necessary. A rigid tube called a stent
can be placed in the ureter to expand it. Optical fibers can deliver laser pulses
to break up the stone. Stones can also be surgically removed
through an incision in the patient’s back or groin. What about just avoiding kidney stones
in the first place? For people prone to them, their doctor may recommend
drinking plenty of water, which dilutes the calcium oxalate
and other compounds that eventually build up
into painful stones. Foods like potato chips, spinach, rhubarb, and beets are high in oxalate, so doctors might advise limiting them. Even though calcium
is often found in stones, calcium in foods and beverages
can actually help by binding to oxalate
in the digestive tract before it can be absorbed
and reach the kidneys. If you do end up with a kidney stone,
you’re not alone. Data suggests that rates are rising, but that world record probably
won’t be broken any time soon.

100 thoughts on “What causes kidney stones? – Arash Shadman

  1. EVERYONE, you can prevent kidney stones by drinking Chanca Piedra which means "stone breaker" in spanish, its a plant from S. America. It tastes like mud but if you have ever experienced the pain of stones, you will gulp it down. Nothing else worked for me.

  2. دلیل خوب بودن ویدیو
    اینکه۳۳ هزار نفر اوکی دادن
    وفقط ۵۰۰ تا خوششون نیامده

  3. I remember volunteering for the emergency department in Edmonton General Hospital, Canada. There was this person who appears to be in the waiting area for hours after midnight. Nurses are all chatting, eating, not doing anything much. Then he starts to bleed and he was shaking with pain. Only then he was admitted and got to see the doctor right away. There is Canadian health care system for you.

  4. Had a kidney stone when I was 20 which worked itself out after 4 hours. The pain was excruciating. I had broken a few bones and pulled some muscles but nothing came close to the pain I experienced with the passing of the kidney stone.

  5. I have had kidney stones since I was in 6th grade. I am now 29 years old. Its gets easier the older you get due to what i call stretching of the urethra tube. Mine are due to a lack of balance in my body and also certain foods and drinks i have to avoid as well. My biggest I passed was 5mm had to be admitted into the ER. Most pain i have ever felt and i have been shot in the leg and finger in which my finger tip was almost blown off. Its easier if your old enough to just drink beer while passing stone as the beer takes pain away and helps you pee the stone out faster. I had the coolest Urologist and he told my parents when i was 18 to just give me beer it is better than giving me a bottle of pain meds and getting addicted and destroying liver faster than beer would.

  6. I’ve had 3 episodes of passing kidney Stones in my life. The pain was a unbearable that I couldn’t stop vomiting. each episode lasted about 6-12 hours, I just had to wait it out. It’s been years now, and haven’t had another episode because of the increase in water I’m drinking.

  7. Acid and PH is your friend when dissolving stones. Drink lemon juice from freshly squeezed lemons to dissolve CALCIUM ox stones (80% of all stones).

  8. There is also a bacteria called oxalobacter formigenes which breaks down calcium oxalate in the body. But since we take antibiotics this bacteria is killed and never reintroduced into the body. Thus kidney stones form. edit:grammar

  9. Having beer 🍻 always helped me to get stone out of body via urine…
    Yes, I am not lying at all…
    I passed.. i don't even remember.. i think 5 or 6 stones (small, not so big) in last 7 months… from when i started drinking beer regularly like in every week..
    So Don't worry at all. Drink Beer, Enjoy, Stay fit & healthy.. ☺️😊

  10. a nightmare that is very real to men every where i could almost feel the scraping in my urinary tract ughhhh…i need to get on a water diet pronto….. to flush out possibilities

  11. 00:12 who was the poor person that had the biggest kidney stone on record :O humanity should come together to console that person

  12. Well, thank you dear thats help alot to hundrstand the kidneys stone !..
    I had analyses and i found out that i don't have any problem cuz i drink alot of water everyday ..

  13. 500 or 1000 years from now, when kidney stones are a thing of the past due to medical advancement
    "I got this amazing kidney stone on my ring from an ancient humanoid"

  14. Grandfather had kidney transplant because kidney stones and failure, still died during another surgery as kidney stones and failure came ba ck. I will probably suffer from them because family history.


  15. I always drink a lot of water 3-4 liters daily and I avoid kidney stone until now Im 40 yrs old. Water is the best medicine ever.

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  17. I can’t tell which type my kidney stones are exactly but my condition is renal tubular acidosis.I’ve passed 100+ since I was diagnosed 2 years ago,I’ve never peed blood but the stone has gotten stuck in my urethra hole.They’ve been extremely painful but some I’ve passed and haven’t noticed but I’d eat a lot of salt they’ll clump together and move out,I am unable to get surgery to remove the 1 big stones roughly the size of a golf ball that are stuck in each kidney because they’re stuck in the meat.Feel free to ask questions

  18. I have chronic kidney stones, something I got from a distant ancestor, and it’s really terrible. I get episodes of it, but it could be much worse. It’s okay.

  19. As someone who has gotten one. They were the worst pain I ever felt I prayed to god to die. Drink your water folks

  20. Ayyyye had a surgery to remove 2 stones in my kidney about a year and a half ago, I had one of the stones 7mm and the other 3mm, my ureters were only open 2mm, therefore, they were ripping my insides to shreds and I didn’t know what it was, I waited hours to go to the ER because I didn’t think it was gonna be that bad, but later they told me it would never have passed and could have caused massive internal bleeding if it hadn’t been removed..I’m now pregnant and waiting to see if childbirth really is easier than passing a kidney stone🤷🏻‍♀️

  21. I've been religiously taking my anti baby pills everyday for as long as I can remember, together with at least 2l of water, avoiding my two biggest fears at the same time

  22. I had gall stones and one was passing before I had my gall bladder removed.
    That was one of the most painful experiences I've lived through besides natural child birth.
    Thanks for the info on kidney stones and may I never have to experience that

  23. There is a Peruvian plant called chanca piedra (stone smasher) that has been used as treatment for centuries before moder medicine existed (hence the name) . It can help with small stones.

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